To instruct the student in operation of all aircraft systems other than the primary controls (which are in another lesson), including pilot control, instrumentation and gauging, problem detection and troubleshooting.

Pitot/static system, vacuum system and associated instruments, landing gear, flaps, powerplant controls, propeller, fuel systems, oil systems, hydraulics, electrical system, anti-icing equipment (pitot heat), avionics

Airworthy aircraft. Checklist

Ground lesson: 45 minutes
Student review (using instructor checklist): 20 minutes

Ground lesson: (see lesson plan) motivate, explain, ask questions.

During ground lesson: Attend to explanation, ask questions, answer questions


Review: Preflight check and use of primary controls.
Objective: Comprehension of operation of aircraft systems.
Materials: Airplane, POH. Pictures (Machado: E2, E10, E20, E24, E27, E30; propeller control, hydraulic system)

INTRODUCTION: Attention/motivation: (1 minute)
What do we mean when we say a "system"? In this case, it's now how something is done, but is an element of the airplane itself: the electrical system, the hydraulic system, the landing gear system, etc. What systems does your car have? What systems do you think are common in a car and an airplane, and what systems are exclusive to each?

DEVELOPMENT: Overview and explanation: (45-60 minutes)
IN CLASSROOM: Explain, using diagrams and white board:
1. Pitot/static system
2. vacuum system and associated instruments
3. propeller
4. hydraulics
5. electrical system

INSIDE COCKPIT: Using the checklist, instructor explains systems management, including controls, and gauges.
1. Pitot/static system
2. gyro instruments
3. landing gear
4. flaps
5. powerplant controls
6. propeller
7. fuel systems
8. oil systems
9. hydraulics
10. electrical system
11. anti-icing equipment (pitot heat)
12. avionics
OUTSIDE PLANE: Instructor points to and explains systems:
1. Pitot/static port
2. landing gear
3. flaps
4. antennas

Oral evaluation/quiz and discussion questions: (20 minutes)
After the instructor goes through the list of systems, the student takes the same list. First while sitting in the cockpit and pointing to the proper gauges and controls, student explains what he/she has understood about systems management. Then instructor and student go outside of the plane to review external operations.