Objective: To learn proper taxiing technique, and how to interpret airport runway markings and lighting, and ground clearances.

Content: Setting of controls for wind, use of rudders for directional control, kinds of airport signs and lighting, clearance instructions, runway incursion avoidance

Airworthy aircraft. PTS. Visual aids (Pictures from Jeppesen book of types of signs and airport markings, lighting, and hand signals).

Ground lesson: 20 minutes
In-aircraft ground lesson 10 minutes
Student practice: every time they're in the plane from now on

Preflight: (see lesson plan) motivate, explain, list common errors, discuss.
On ground during taxi: Demonstrate proper taxiing technique and explain signs as they pass

Preflight: Attend to explanation, answer questions
On ground during taxi: Practice proper control position for wind, and rudder technique, answer questions regarding airport signs, clearances, and runway incursion avoidance.

Completion Standards:
Taxiing: Positions controls for wind, maintains control of aircraft with accuracy and safety, obtains and follows ATC ground clearances as appropriate
Airport markings: Can identify the various airport signs and runway/taxiway markings, understands meaning of rotating beacons at night and in daylight hours, shows understanding of lighting systems through use and explanation


Review: Ground operations
Objective: To learn proper taxiing technique, and how to interpret airport runway markings and lighting, and ground clearances. Runway incursion avoidance
Materials: Jeppesen pictures

INTRODUCTION: Attention/motivation: (1 minute)
An airplane isn't meant to drive around, so it doesn't do it very well, so learning to taxi properly is really very important.
The cool thing, is that once you're on the ground, you're safe, right? Oh, no! What if you pull out on to a runway when you aren't supposed to, and a 747 bounces on top of you. That would be really bad. Fortunately, this is very easy to avoid, providing that you follow ATC clearances and you know what the runway markings mean.

DEVELOPMENT: Overview and explanation of taxiing: (2 minutes)
1. Get a clearance to taxi, and read it back
2. Do a brake check before getting rolling
3. Position controls for wind: dive away from, turn into wind
4. Use rudders for steering: small control movements
5. THROTTLE controls speed, not brakes. Use brakes very sparingly
6. Follow the appropriate markings and signs, and go according to clearance

Common errors: taxiing (2 minutes)

Trying to steer with the yoke. Pretty funny
Yoke not positioned correctly for wind
Not on the centerline
Poor speed control: brakes instead of throttle
Hand not on throttle

DEVELOPMENT: Overview and explanation of airport signs: (12 minutes)
Using pictures, explain:

Wind sock, tetrahedron, wind-T
Segmented circle
Six kinds of runway signs MIDDLR
Hold-short line
ILS hold-short line
Chevrons vs. displaced thresholds
Fixed-distance (aiming point) markings and touchdown zone indicators
Threshold markings and runway heading
Threshold (green/red) lights
Beacons: types and meaning, day and night
Blue taxiway edge lights
White runway edge lights
Pilot-controlled lighting

Oral evaluation/quiz and discussion questions: (3 minutes)
Q: If Hanscom ground tells you to taxi to runway 23, can you cross runway 11/29, or do you need further permission to do that?
Q: If you're told to taxi and hold short of runway 29, where do you have to stop, exactly?
Q: What is an ILS hold area?
Q: How do you control the speed of the aircraft when taxiing?
Q: How do you position the yoke for various wind directions?
Q: How would you know where the wind is coming from?
Q: If the beacon is running during daylight hours, what does that mean?
Q: When taxiing, identify the various kinds of runway signs.